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Joseph Stalin | Moscow | Russia

Soviet politician, leader of the USSR, generalissimo of the Soviet Union, from 15 years old propagandizing the ideas of Marxists. After the death of Lenin, he took a leading position in the country. He built industrialization and collectivization to build the economy, but as a result of the Stalinist five-year plans, waves of crop failures, mass deaths from starvation, religious persecution, political exile in the camps and executions took place throughout the country.

In 1937-1938, the Great Terror took place in the Soviet Union, during which 1.34 million people were convicted and more than 680 thousand people were executed. It is known about the so-called "Stalin's death lists", which indicate that Stalin personally authorized the conviction of 43,768 people - almost all were shot. Mass repression was the main form of government and society in the Stalin era. Many peoples were deported during his reign.

Until Hitler's attack, the Soviet Union collaborated with Nazi Germany. In the spring of 1940, more than 21 thousand Polish prisoners were shot in Katyn.

Stalin had more political power than any other figure in history. He was not only a symbol of dictatorship, but also made fundamental decisions, being the initiator of any government measures at that time. Stalin was inherent in personal anti-Semitism, about which his subordinates and his relatives spoke. He created a powerful cult of self, using corrections in biographies, the destruction of witnesses, rewriting of history and textbooks, interventions in science, art and culture.

The first secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, N. S. Khrushchev, at the XX CPSU Congress in his report “On the personality cult and its consequences”, said that Stalin “moved from the position of ideological struggle to the path of administrative suppression, to the path of mass repression, to the path of terror. He acted wider and more persistently through punitive bodies, often violating all existing moral standards and Soviet laws. ”

After these words of Khrushchev, the process of de-Stalinization began in the USSR. The first monument to be demolished was the monument to Stalin in Tbilisi, then slowly the monuments were transferred from city centers to the outskirts. In 1961, the body of Stalin was taken out of the Mausoleum and buried. Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd.

However, from the 2010s, monuments to Stalin began to be erected in Georgia and Russia. Two of them are in Moscow.