In 1884/5 European leaders met at the Berlin Conference to divide Africa and arbitrarily draw up borders that exist to this day. Representatives of 13 European states, the United States of America and the Ottoman Empire converged on Berlin at the invitation of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to divide up Africa among themselves "in accordance with international law". Africans were not invited to the meeting. The arbitrary division of the continent among European powers, which ignored African laws, culture, sovereignty and institutions, led to many decades of slavery, murder and rape of African cultures as well as many genocides such as the Namas and Herero`s committed by German troops. The Berlin Conference and the following consequences was a crime against humanity.